NIFTY: Definition And How It Is Calculated


What Is NIFTY?

The National Stock Exchange introduced the market index known as NIFTY. The term was combined from National Stock Exchange and Fifty, and it was first used by NSE on April 21, 1996. Out of a total of 1600 stocks, the top 50 equity stocks traded on the stock exchange are displayed in the benchmark-based NIFTY 50 index, which is also the flagship of the NSE.

Twelve sectors of the Indian economy are represented by these stocks: consumer goods, financial services, information technology, metals, pharmaceuticals, telecommunications, cement and related products, cars, energy, fertilizers and pesticides, and other services.

NIFTY is one of two national indices, the other being the Bombay Stock Exchange’s SENSEX. It is owned by the India Index Services and Products (IISL), a wholly owned subsidiary of the National Stock Exchange Strategic Investment Corporation Limited.

The NIFTY 50 index tracks the trends and patterns of blue-chip companies, which are the most liquid and largest Indian securities.

NIFTY includes several indices, including the NIFTY 50, NIFTY IT, NIFTY Bank, and NIFTY Next 50, and is part of the NSE’s Futures and Options (F&O) segment, which deals in derivatives.

How Share Market NIFTY Calculated?

Professionals from the NSE Indices Limited oversee a team that manages the NIFTY share index. It established an Index Advisory Committee to provide knowledge and direction on broad matters pertaining to equity indices.

The market capitalization weighted and float-adjusted methodology is used to calculate the NIFTY 50 indices. With this approach, the index level shows the total market value of the stocks that make up the index over a given base period. For an NIFTY 50 index, this base period is November 3, 1995, when the index’s base capital is Rs. 2.06 trillion and its base value is 1000.

The following is the price index calculation formula:

Index value is calculated as follows: current market value (MV) / (BMC * 1000).

The methodology used to calculate the indices also takes into account modifications to corporate actions, such as stock splits and the issuance of rights, among other things.

All Indian equities markets are compared to the NIFTY share market index as a benchmark. To guarantee that the index stays steady and continues to serve as the benchmark in the context of the Indian stock market, NSE maintains it on a regular basis.

Top Companies Listed under NIFTY

Company Market Cap Sector
Reliance Industries Rs.18,58,973 Cr Oil, Gas & Fuels
Tata Consultancy Services Rs. 14,12,760 Cr IT Services
HDFC Bank Rs. 12,74,740 Cr Bank
ICICI Bank Rs. 7,07,945 Cr Bank
Infosys Rs. 6,76,917 Cr IT Services
Bharti Airtel Rs. 6,43,666 Cr Telecom Services
Hindustan Unilever Rs. 6,03,387 Cr Personal Product
ITC Rs. 5,89,036 Cr Tobacco
State Bank of India Rs. 5,68,319 Cr Bank
Larsen & Toubro Rs. 4,91,236 Cr Construction

Eligibility Standards for NIFTY Index Listing

The eligibility criteria for being listed on the NIFTY Index are mentioned below:


    • The business must have its registered office in India and be listed on the National Stock Exchange.

    • The company should have had a trading frequency of 100% in the previous six months.

    • The index also includes shares with Differential Voting Rights (DVR).

    • Its average free-floating market capitalization should be 1.5 times greater than the index’s smallest component.

    • Stocks need to have a high level of liquidity, as indicated by their average impact cost. It is the price of executing a security transaction in proportion to the index weight determined by market capitalization. For a period of six months, it should be 0.50% or less, with 90% of the observations being made on a portfolio worth Rs. 10 crore.

Every six months, the NIFTY Index is reconstituted, taking stock performance into account. The list may include or exclude new or old stocks based on this performance and the fact that a company and its stock meet all the eligibility requirements stated above. Four weeks prior to reconstitution, the companies concerned are notified through notice of any new additions or eliminations.

In addition to being done on a regular basis, reconstitution can also be done when a company goes through a plan of arrangements for things like suspension, spin-off, merger, and forced delisting.

Importance of NIFTY:

The NIFTY indices serve as crucial barometers of the Indian equity market’s performance. Investors, both domestic and international, use these indices to gauge the overall health and direction of the market. Given the diverse sectors represented within NIFTY, it provides a comprehensive snapshot of the Indian economy’s vitality.

Sectoral Indices within NIFTY:

Apart from the flagship NIFTY 50 index, there are several sector-specific indices under the NIFTY umbrella. These indices cater to investors seeking exposure to particular sectors. For instance, the NIFTY Bank index tracks the performance of banking stocks, while the NIFTY IT index focuses solely on the information technology sector. Sectoral indices offer investors a more targeted approach to investing, allowing them to align their portfolios with specific industries or themes.

Role of NIFTY in Derivatives Trading:

NIFTY’s prominence extends beyond its role as a benchmark index. It is also a key component of the derivatives market. The NIFTY Futures and Options (F&O) segment provides investors with avenues for hedging, speculation, and arbitrage. Traders utilize NIFTY derivatives to manage risk exposure and capitalize on market movements.

NIFTY’s Global Recognition:

NIFTY’s stature has grown internationally, attracting attention from global investors seeking exposure to emerging markets. Its inclusion in various global indices and exchange-traded funds (ETFs) has bolstered its visibility on the global stage. As India continues to be a focal point for investors eyeing growth opportunities, NIFTY serves as a gateway to the country’s dynamic equity market.

Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking:

Given its broad representation of blue-chip companies, NIFTY is widely used for performance evaluation and benchmarking purposes. Portfolio managers, fund managers, and institutional investors compare their returns against NIFTY indices to assess their investment strategies’ effectiveness. Outperforming NIFTY benchmarks is often a measure of success in the investment world.

Evolution and Adaptation:

Over the years, NIFTY has evolved to reflect changes in the Indian economy and market dynamics. The periodic reconstitution of NIFTY indices ensures that they remain relevant and representative. Additionally, NIFTY continues to innovate, introducing new indices and products to cater to evolving investor needs and market trends.

NIFTY stands as a cornerstone of the Indian capital markets, embodying the vibrancy and resilience of the nation’s economy. Its comprehensive coverage, transparent methodology, and global recognition make it an indispensable tool for investors navigating the complexities of the Indian equity market. As India’s economic landscape evolves, NIFTY remains a beacon guiding investors towards new opportunities and growth prospects.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. What role does NIFTY play in global investment strategies?

NIFTY’s inclusion in various global indices and exchange-traded funds (ETFs) has increased its visibility and attractiveness to international investors seeking exposure to emerging markets like India. NIFTY serves as a gateway to India’s dynamic equity market, offering opportunities for growth and diversification in global investment portfolios.

2. How often is the NIFTY Index reconstituted?

The NIFTY Index is reconstituted every six months to reflect changes in stock performance and ensure the index remains representative of the market. Companies may be added or removed based on their adherence to eligibility criteria and overall performance.

3. Are there sector-specific indices within NIFTY?

Yes, besides the NIFTY 50 index, there are several sector-specific indices under the NIFTY umbrella. These indices focus on specific sectors such as banking, information technology, and telecommunications, allowing investors to tailor their investment portfolios according to their sectoral preferences.

4. What are the eligibility criteria for companies to be listed on the NIFTY Index?

Companies must meet several criteria to be listed on the NIFTY Index, including having their registered office in India, being listed on the National Stock Exchange, having a high trading frequency, maintaining a certain level of market capitalization, and demonstrating liquidity through their average impact cost.

5. How does NIFTY contribute to derivatives trading?

NIFTY is a key component of the derivatives market, particularly in the Futures and Options (F&O) segment. NIFTY derivatives provide investors with opportunities for hedging, speculation, and arbitrage, enhancing market liquidity and efficiency.


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